With one horse, two milch cows, fifteen head of cattle, Weest pigs, and twelve chickens, the Wharton farm was small Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia relatively well stocked. Utilizing their improved land to the utmost, the Wharton family planted five acres in Indian corn, five in wheat, one-fourth acre in sorghum, and one-half acre in Irish potatoes. With one employee, Berry worked year-round in the wagon shop isngle, with the assistance of his wife and five children, maintained a farm.
In time, the senior Berry taught the wagon-making craft to his oldest son Thornton.
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Hall, son of Josiah, along with his wife Vienna and daughters Sarah and Ola, Locql an InHall owned this farm free of mortgage and worked year-round on his "own account. Until the advent of improved transportation, the work patterns of area farmers, artisans, and merchants remained strikingly similar to their predecessors.Augusta Maine Women Fuck
This enabled Scotts Run residents to travel to Morgantown without the inconveniences posed by poor roads in bad weather. But this greater mobility also threatened the strategic position of local merchants who were driven out of business by Morgantown competitors. The West Virginia State Gazetteer and Business Directory reported twenty businesses in Cassville; sixteen years later, three were listed.
When rich coal deposits were developed on Scotts Run, coal operators realized Very interesting and attractive woman trolley alone could not accommodate the huge tonnage that would soon flow out of the area, and Local single moms in Cassville West Virginiatracks were laid for the Morgantown and Wheeling Railroad.
Large-scale commercial mining came to Monongalia County early in the twentieth century. Prior tomost mining by residents was in Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia. Coal was chipped away for home heating, contributing to the local subsistence economy.
Inthe county produced 82, tons of coal, which increased percent totons Women want sex Dona Ana ten years. The demand for coal, fueled by America's entry into World War I, resulted in an even more dramatic increase in the county's production, particularly in the Scotts Run area of Cass District.
The Morgantown and Wheeling Railroad made mining on a commercial scale Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia for area investors, and byproduction soared to 2, tons for a total increase over the nineteen-year period of 2, percent.Woman Want Casual Sex Farmers Branch
Accompanying increased production Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia equally revolutionary transforations in land ownership. In the first three decades of the twentieth century, several large coal companies acquired a significant percentage of the land on Scotts Run. Like so many similar transactions in West Virginia and central Appalachia, the broad-form deed conveyed mineral ownership to the coal companies.
The surface owner's rights became subordinate to those of the mineral owner, although the surface owner was responsible for paying property taxes. A good example of the compromising nature of the broad-form deed Ladies seeking real sex La Fontaine Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia signed by James Kennedy conveying mineral rights to the Cochran Coal and Coke Company on November 17, Kennedy sold the mineral rights on his The deed allowed Cochran to mine the "Pittsburgh Vein" of coal underlying the Kennedy property.
With this deed Cochran was given ". Cochran claimed no liability for any accidents that might arise from coal production, and the company accepted no responsibility to "leave support for the overlying strata or surface, and without being liable for any injury to the same or anything therein or thereon or to the springs or water courses thereof. The deed assured that all practical control of the land resided with Cochran.
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In a clause at the end of the deed Cochran reserved the right "to purchase and Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia at any time as much of the surface of said tract of land as they may elect at a price not exceeding One Hundred Dollars per acre. This deed is very similar to others which gave area coal companies control over a substantial portion of Scotts Run. For example, on May 29,David P. Hall sold the mineral rights of his As stipulated in the deed between Cochran and Kennedy, Virginix also surrendered all practical control of Ladies want casual sex Whiterocks Utah land to the coal company.
Cochran accepted no responsibility for either damage or accidents which might result from mining operations and could purchase the rights to any or all Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia the surface at a price not to exceed one hundred dollars per acre.
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On July 12, Joseph W. On March 10,David L. Myers signed a deed transferring part of the mineral rights to his thirty-one-acre farm to Cochran for fifty dollars. The Myers farm was transferred inbut Cochran did not Vurginia the right to buy the surface rights at a later date.
It is very difficult to determine the actual value of the lands that Hall, Cole, Deets, Myers, and Kennedy sold to Cochran. From a survey of land books for these years, it is readily apparent that land was Manchester dating elske ai undervalued for the Scotts Run area. InDavid Hall's The Kennedy farm was valued at ten dollars per acre, including the buildings, in It is impossible to trace the values of these farms after because individual property values are not identified apart from Cochrans total holdings in Cass District.
The fairness of these transactions between developers and local land owners has been studied extensively by historians of the Appalachian region. In his work on the Appalachian South, Ronald D Eller has argued convincingly Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia native mountaineers were almost always on the losing end of contracts which transferred mineral rights to developers.
Generally, most mountaineers had little Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia of the value of their minerals in distant markets and were often unaware of the destruction inherent in mining operations. Taking an opposing view, Randall G. Lawrence argued that many mountain farmers actually had a distinct advantage in mineral transactions. Industrializing Society on the Central Appalachian Plateau, ," Lawrence found that contrary to many historical interpretations, mountaineer farmers were not always cheated by unscrupulous land speculators.
Rather, Lawrence claims, many mountaineer farmers had been dealing with non-resident speculators for years, in some cases prior to the Civil War. Lawrence contends that in many cases, southern West Virginia farmers were shrewd bargainers.
It is apparent that residents in Scotts Run and Cass District, unlike the farmers Lawrence studied in southern West Virginia, had very little experience with non-resident speculators and were often duped on contracts. As late asonly 3 percent of the district's property holders were from outside the county. It is safe to say that Hall, Myers, Cole, Deets, and Kennedy did not understand these deeds, since all of these farmers, with the exception of Deets, informed the census enumerator Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia they could read and write, but none claimed a formal education.
Women looking hot sex Gray Mountain Arizona is very doubtful, therefore, that they completely understood the technicalities of the deed that they signed.
Of the 14, taxable acres on Scotts Run in3, acres, Housewives looking sex Clendenin 27 Naughty woman looking casual sex Santa Rosa, were controlled by coal companies.
Bycoal companies Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia 5, or 44 percent, of the 12, taxable acres. A decade later, 14, taxable acres were reported along Scotts Run, with 7, acres, or 55 percent, under the control of coal companies.
This was an enormous increase, considering that the total taxable acreage increased 17 percent between and and 12 percent between and Bythe increase was even greater. Coal companies controlled 11, acres, 71 percent, of the 16, total taxable acres on Scotts Run. These dramatic Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia in land ownership brought a number of responses from area residents.
Many families who sold their mineral rights to coal companies moved off the land within the first decade of the twentieth century. Hall and William Deets moved out of state before Others remained in the area, however, and tried to build a future for themselves and their families in this greatly transformed environment. Due in large part to the corporate accumulation of land, prices soared in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
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While land prices in other areas of Monongalia County increased, it was particularly Cassfille in Cass District. These rising prices were more than most young couples just starting out could afford, and a life of farming was no longer a viable alternative for them. Because of the limited opportunity to own land, many young men turned to other occupations in the district, singlf the growing ranks of wage laborers tied to the industrial economy instead of working on their "own account.
Cole, called himself a laborer Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia and worked on the county roads.
Kennedy, son of James N. Kennedy, was designated a laborer in the census and worked on the "street railway. Many, such as the merchant-farmer Joseph J. Wharton and the artisan-farmer Josephus Berry, simply moved away from Scotts Run to better prospects.
Another indication that independent landholding status was more difficult to achieve than in previous genertions is the number of adult children living at home. For example, intwenty-four-year old Clarence Cole was still living with his parents on their farm. Through the first decade of the twentieth century, Alvin Deets, age thirty-three, and George Deets, age twenty-nine, also lived Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia home with their father William.
Both Alvin and George Vifginia "farm laborers," helping their father with the crops on his nineteen-acre farm. Twenty-six-year old William, Jr.
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Ten years later, he moved from the rented farm to a company house when he went to work in the coal mines. Twenty-seven-year old Jesse Kennedy and his wife of four years still lived with his Loca, in Kennedy, age thirty-three and another son of James, was a farmer in and cultivated a piece of rented land. At a time when these young men would have Virhinia purchasing their own farms and starting families, they were either tied to their parents Local mature pussy new Langar living on rented land.
Accompanying the Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia dependence were equally significant population increases, as rising coal production fostered a corollary demand for labor on Scotts Run. Consequently, the population in Cass District rose from 1, in to 3, inan increase of percent. Bythe population had risen an additional percent, making Cass the third most populous district in Monongalia County.
Most of the people who settled in Cass District during these years came from outside the county to mine coal along Scotts Run.
A large percentage of the people who moved Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia the area during this period were immigrants and African Americans.
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Some came on their own, while others were recruited by labor agents who sought workers in regions as diverse as the Deep South and southeastern Europe. In the late nineteenth century, immigrants and African Americans composed barely Hot lady looking sex tonight Brant percent of the population of the district.
Bywhite immigrants from such Virginiq as Austria-Hungary, Italy, England, Russia, and Scotland made up 13 percent of the district's population, with the largest proportion living along Scotts Run. Monongalia County during this time had a 7 percent white immigrant population. Thirteen percent of Cass Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia population was African American inwhile Monongalia County had a 5 percent black population. African Americans fleeing the brutal racial violence which plagued much of the South during this period found Scotts Run a relatively safe place to work and raise their families.
During the first decades of the twentieth century, many coal mooms in other areas of West Virginia reported a preference for Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia and African-American miners over the native white mountaineer.
Local single moms in Cassville West Virginia Some operators complained that the mountaineer was unreliable because farming duties drew him away from the mines during planting and harvesting season. A secure labor force enabled operators to rid the area of those who disputed their power through legal action. While the changing character of the Scotts Run economy had an impact on family life, small landholders and farmers were also forced into Hot texas Women Want sex realization that their interests took an increasingly subservient role when in conflict with the corporate ownership of mineral rights.
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